Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine: Drug information
Copyright 1978-2018 Lexicomp, Inc. All rights reserved.
(For additional information see "Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine: Patient drug information" and see "Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine: Pediatric drug information")

For abbreviations and symbols that may be used in Lexicomp (show table)
ALERT: US Boxed Warning
Posttreatment acute exacerbation of hepatitis B:

Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is not approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and the safety and efficacy have not been established in patients coinfected with HBV and HIV-1. Severe, acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued therapy. Closely monitor hepatic function with clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who are infected with HBV and discontinue emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. If appropriate, initiation of antihepatitis B therapy may be warranted.

Risk of drug resistance with use for preexposure prophylaxis:

Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for a preexposure prophylaxis indication must only be prescribed to individuals confirmed to be HIV-negative immediately prior to initiating and periodically (at least every 3 months) during use. Drug-resistant HIV-1 variants have been identified with use for a preexposure prophylaxis indication following undetected acute HIV-1 infection. Do not initiate for a preexposure prophylaxis indication if signs or symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection are present unless negative infection status is confirmed.

Brand Names: US
  • Truvada
Brand Names: Canada
  • Truvada
Pharmacologic Category
  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleoside (Anti-HIV);
  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleotide (Anti-HIV)
Dosing: Adult

Note: Avoid concurrent use with adefovir or lamivudine-containing products or other emtricitabine- and/or tenofovir-containing products.

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg) once daily in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

HIV-1/hepatitis B co-infection, treatment (off-label use): Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg) once daily in combination with other antiretroviral agents (HHS [adult] 2016).

HIV-1 nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) (off-label use): Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg) once daily for 28 days in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Initiate therapy within 72 hours of exposure (HHS [nPEP] 2016).

HIV-1 occupational postexposure, prophylaxis (oPEP) (off-label use): Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg) once daily for 4 weeks with concomitant raltegravir. Initiate therapy as soon as possible after occupational exposure (and within 72 hours) (Kuhar 2013)

Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV infection in uninfected high-risk individuals: Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg) once daily

PrEP for prevention of HIV infection in injecting drug users (IDU) who are at risk for parenteral acquisition of HIV but not at risk for sexual acquisition of HIV (off-label use): Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg) once daily (CDC 2013)

Dosing: Pediatric

(For additional information see "Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine: Pediatric drug information")

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Note: Use only in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

Children and Adolescents 17 to <22 kg: Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 100 mg/tenofovir 150 mg) once daily

Children and Adolescents 22 to <28 kg: Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 133 mg/tenofovir 200 mg) once daily

Children and Adolescents 28 to <35 kg: Oral: One tablet (emtricitabine 167 mg/tenofovir 250 mg) once daily

Children and Adolescents ≥35 kg: Oral: Refer to adult dosing.

HIV-1 nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) (off-label use): Adolescents: Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Adults:

Manufacturer's labeling:

CrCl ≥50 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary

CrCl 30 to 49 mL/minute: Increase interval to every 48 hours.

CrCl <30 mL/minute: Not recommended.

Hemodialysis: Not recommended.

Alternate recommendations (IDSA [Lucas 2014]): CrCl <50 mL/minute (and not on hemodialysis) or GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Avoid use of tenofovir

PrEP: Adults:

CrCl ≥60 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary

CrCl <60 mL/minute: Not recommended.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied).

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Truvada: Emtricitabine 100 mg and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 150 mg, Emtricitabine 133 mg and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 200 mg, Emtricitabine 167 mg and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 250 mg, Emtricitabine 200 mg and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg [contains fd&c blue #2 aluminum lake]

Generic Equivalent Available (US)

No

Medication Guide and/or Vaccine Information Statement (VIS)

An FDA-approved patient medication guide, which is available with the product information and at https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/021752s053lbl.pdf#page=42, must be dispensed with this medication.

Administration

Oral: May be administered with or without food.

Use

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents in adults and pediatric patients weighing ≥17 kg

HIV-1 infection, preexposure prophylaxis: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV-1 infection in adults who are at high risk for acquiring HIV, in combination with safer sex practices

Use: Off-Label

Hepatitis B (antiviral-resistant); HIV/Hepatitis B coinfection; HIV-1 nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis; HIV-1 occupational postexposure prophylaxis; Preexposure prophylaxis of HIV-1 infection in injecting drug users (IDU)

Medication Safety Issues
High alert medication:

This medication is in a class the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) includes among its list of drug classes that have a heightened risk of causing significant patient harm when used in error.

Adverse Reactions

See individual agents.

Contraindications

As preexposure prophylaxis in patients with unknown or HIV-1 positive status; for HIV-1 treatment, use only in HIV-1-infected patients in combination with other antiretrovirals

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity emtricitabine, tenofovir, or any component of the formulation

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Decreased bone mineral density: In clinical trials, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate has been associated with decreases in bone mineral density in HIV-1 infected adults and increases in bone metabolism markers. Serum parathyroid hormone and 1,25 vitamin D levels were also higher. Decreases in bone mineral density have also been observed in clinical trials of HIV-1 infected pediatric patients. Observations in chronic hepatitis B infected pediatric patients (aged 12-18 years) were similar. In all pediatric clinical trials, skeletal growth (height) appears unaffected. Consider monitoring of bone density in adult and pediatric patients with a history of pathologic fractures or with other risk factors for bone loss or osteoporosis. Consider calcium and vitamin D supplementation for all patients; effect of supplementation has not been studied but may be beneficial. Long-term bone health and fracture risk unknown. If abnormalities are suspected, expert assessment is recommended.

• Immune reconstitution syndrome: Patients may develop immune reconstitution syndrome resulting in the occurrence of an inflammatory response to an indolent or residual opportunistic infection during initial HIV treatment or activation of autoimmune disorders (eg, Graves’ disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome) later in therapy; further evaluation and treatment may be required.

• Lactic acidosis/hepatomegaly: Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, sometimes fatal, have been reported with use of nucleoside analogues, alone or in combination with other antiretrovirals. Suspend treatment in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (marked transaminase elevation may/may not accompany hepatomegaly and steatosis).

• Osteomalacia and renal dysfunction: May cause osteomalacia with proximal renal tubulopathy. Bone pain, extremity pain, fractures, arthralgias, weakness and muscle pain have been reported. In patients at risk for renal dysfunction, persistent or worsening bone or muscle symptoms should be evaluated for hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia.

• Renal toxicity: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may cause renal toxicity (acute renal failure and/or Fanconi syndrome); avoid use with concurrent or recent nephrotoxic therapy (including high dose or multiple NSAID use). Acute renal failure has occurred in HIV-infected patients with risk factors for renal impairment who were on a stable tenofovir regimen to which a high dose or multiple NSAID therapy was added. Consider alternatives to NSAIDS in patients taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and at risk for renal impairment. Calculate creatinine clearance prior to initiation of therapy and as clinically appropriate during therapy. In patients at risk for renal dysfunction, including patients who have experienced renal events while taking adefovir, assess serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to and periodically during treatment. IDSA guidelines recommend discontinuing tenofovir (and substituting with alternative antiretroviral therapy) in HIV-infected patients who develop a decline in GFR (a >25% decrease in GFR from baseline and to a level of <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) during use, particularly in presence of proximal tubular dysfunction (eg, euglycemic glycosuria, increased urinary phosphorus excretion and hypophosphatemia, proteinuria [new onset or worsening]) (IDSA [Lucas 2014]).

Disease-related concerns:

• Chronic hepatitis B: [US Boxed Warning]: Safety and efficacy during coinfection of HIV and HBV have not been established; acute, severe exacerbations of HBV have been reported following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Not approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Closely monitor hepatic function with clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV and discontinue this therapy. If appropriate, anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted. All patients with HIV should be tested for HBV prior to initiation of treatment.

• Comprehensive prevention program: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be accompanied by a comprehensive HIV-1 prevention program (eg, risk reduction counseling, access to condoms), with particular emphasis on medication adherence. In addition, regular monitoring (eg, HIV status of patient and partner(s), risk behavior, adherence, adverse effects, sexually transmitted infections that facilitate HIV-1 transmission) is highly recommended.

• HIV treatment: Appropriate use: Not recommended as a component of a triple nucleoside regimen due to potential for early virological failure. Clinical trials in HIV-infected patients whose regimens contained only three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) show less efficacy, early virologic failure and high rates of resistance substitutions. Triple drug regimens with two NRTIs in combination with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a HIV-1 protease inhibitor are usually more effective.

• HIV treatment and renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment (CrCl <50 mL/minute); dosage adjustment required. Closely monitor renal function and assess serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to and periodically during treatment. Do not use in patients with CrCl <30 mL/minute or requiring hemodialysis. IDSA guidelines recommend avoiding tenofovir in HIV patients with preexisting kidney disease (CrCl <50 mL/minute and not on hemodialysis or GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) when other effective HIV treatment options exist because data suggest risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increased (IDSA [Lucas 2014]).

• PrEP and renal impairment: Routinely monitor serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to and periodically during treatment in patients with mild renal impairment. Do not use in CrCl <60 mL/minute.

• Resistance risk with PrEP: [US Boxed Warning]: Confirm HIV-1 negative status immediately before and at least every 3 months during therapy. Do not start PrEP if signs or symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection are present unless HIV-1 negative status is confirmed by a test approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an aid to detect HIV-1 infection (including acute or primary infection). Risk of drug resistant HIV-1 variants with PrEP use if patient had undetected acute HIV-1 infection. Some HIV-1 tests (eg, rapid tests) do not detect acute HIV-1 infection. Screen PrEP candidates for acute viral infections and potential exposure events within 1 month of starting PrEP. If infections or events exist, wait 1 month to start PrEP and reconfirm HIV-1 negative status. If symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection develop following a potential exposure during PrEP, discontinue PrEP until negative infection status is confirmed.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

• Duplicate therapy: Do not use concurrently with emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir alafenamide, or any combination of these drugs.

Metabolism/Transport Effects

Refer to individual components.

Drug Interactions

(For additional information: Launch drug interactions program)

Acyclovir-Valacyclovir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Acyclovir-Valacyclovir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Adefovir: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Tenofovir Products. Adefovir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Adefovir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Aminoglycosides: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Atazanavir: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Management: Must use ritonavir-boosting in adults; give combo (atazanavir/ritonavir 300mg/100mg and tenofovir 300mg) as a single daily dose with food. Pediatric patients, pregnant patients, and users of H2-blockers require other dose changes. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: MRP2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cidofovir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Cidofovir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tenofovir Products. More specifically, cobicistat may impair proper tenofovir monitoring and dosing. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Darunavir: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may increase the serum concentration of Darunavir. Darunavir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diclofenac (Systemic): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Products. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination whenever possible. Avoid use of tenofovir with multiple NSAIDs or any NSAID given at a high dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Didanosine: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may diminish the therapeutic effect of Didanosine. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may increase the serum concentration of Didanosine. Management: Avoid concomitant treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine. Consider altering even existing, stable treatment to avoid this combination. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ganciclovir-Valganciclovir: Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Ganciclovir-Valganciclovir. Ganciclovir-Valganciclovir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

LamiVUDine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Emtricitabine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ledipasvir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Management: Avoidance of this combination is recommended under some circumstances. Refer to full monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lopinavir: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Lopinavir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Products. Management: Seek alternatives to these combinations whenever possible. Avoid use of tenofovir with multiple NSAIDs or any NSAID given at a high dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Antiretroviral Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may decrease the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Simeprevir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Telaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may decrease the serum concentration of Tipranavir. Tipranavir may decrease the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Velpatasvir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Food Interactions

See individual agents.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

B (show table)

Pregnancy Implications

The Health and Human Services (HHS) Perinatal HIV Guidelines consider emtricitabine with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to be a preferred NRTI backbone for initial therapy in antiretroviral-naive pregnant females. Emtricitabine with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is also recommended as part of a regimen when acute HIV infection is detected during pregnancy. In general, females who become pregnant on a stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen may continue that regimen if viral suppression is effective, appropriate drug exposure can be achieved, contraindications for use in pregnancy are not present, and the regimen is well tolerated.

The HHS perinatal guidelines also recommend emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as a component of regimens for HIV/HBV-coinfected pregnant females.

In addition, this combination is recommended for pre-exposure prophylaxis in couples with differing HIV status who are planning a pregnancy. The partner without HIV should begin therapy 1 month prior to and continue for 1 month after conception is attempted (HHS [perinatal] 2017).

Refer to individual monographs.

Breast-Feeding Considerations

Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are present in breast milk. Refer to individual monographs. Breastfeeding is not a contraindication to PrEP (HHS [perinatal] 2017).

Dietary Considerations

May be taken without regard to meals. Consider calcium and vitamin D supplementation in patients with history of bone fracture or osteopenia.

Monitoring Parameters

CBC with differential, reticulocyte count, creatine kinase, CD4 count, HIV RNA plasma levels, serum phosphorus; serum creatinine (prior to initiation and as clinically indicated during therapy), urine glucose and urine protein (in patients with mild renal impairment [CrCl 30-49 mL/minute], at risk for renal impairment or who experienced renal impairment while taking adefovir), hepatic function tests, bone density (patients with a history of bone fracture or have risk factors for bone loss); testing for HBV is recommended prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy; weight (children).

Patients with HIV and HBV coinfection should be monitored for several months following tenofovir discontinuation.

HIV-1 preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) (CDC 2011; CDC 2012): Pregnancy test for women receiving PrEP (every visit); documented negative HIV test (immediately prior to use, every 2-3 months, and following discontinuation of PrEP), assess risk behaviors and symptoms of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) or acute HIV-1 infection and provide condoms (immediately prior to use, then every 2-3 months during therapy); BUN and serum creatinine (prior to initiation, 3 months after initiation, then every 6 months); urine glucose and urine protein (in patients at risk for renal impairment or who experienced renal impairment while taking adefovir); testing for HBV (prior to initiation) and STIs (prior to initiation, then at least every 6 months, even if asymptomatic)

HIV occupational postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (Kuhar 2013): Documented HIV test (at baseline and 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months after exposure); if confirmation that a fourth generation HIV p2 antigen-HIV antibody test is being used, monitor at baseline, 6 weeks and 4 months after exposure. CBC, renal and hepatic function assessments at baseline and 2 weeks after exposure (minimum recommendations, others dictated by clinical assessment)

Mechanism of Action

Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor combination; emtricitabine is a cytosine analogue while tenofovir is an analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate. Each drug interferes with HIV viral RNA dependent DNA polymerase resulting in inhibition of viral replication.

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics

Refer to individual monographs.

Pricing: US

Tablets (Truvada Oral)

100-150 mg (30): $2,010.95

133-200 mg (30): $2,010.95

167-250 mg (30): $2,010.95

200-300 mg (30): $2,010.95

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Brand Names: International
  • Emtifovir (BD);
  • Emzavir (LB);
  • Fovirem (CO);
  • Recovir-Em (TH);
  • Teno-Em (TH);
  • Tenvir EM (UY);
  • Tenvir-EM (IN);
  • Tenvor-Em (LB);
  • Tolak E (CO);
  • Trenstad (VN);
  • Truvada (AE, AR, AT, AU, BB, BE, BG, CH, CL, CN, CR, CY, CZ, DE, DK, DO, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, GT, HK, HN, HR, HU, IE, IL, IS, IT, JO, JP, KR, LT, LU, LV, MT, MX, NI, NL, NO, NZ, PA, PL, PT, RO, RU, SE, SG, SI, SK, SV, TH, TR)
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REFERENCES

  1. Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, et al, “Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Heterosexual Men and Women,” N Engl J Med, 2012, 367(5):399-410. [PubMed 22784037]
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),“Interim Guidance: Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men”. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2011, 60(3):65-8. [PubMed 21270743]
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Interim Guidance: Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: PrEP for Injecting Drug Users," MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2013, 62(23):463-5. [PubMed 23760186]
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Updated guidelines for antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV—United States, 2016. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/38856. Published April 18, 2016. Accessed July 11, 2016.
  5. Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al, “Pre-exposure Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Who Have Sex With Men”, N Engl J Med, 2010, 363(27):2587-99. [PubMed 21091279]
  6. HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/ContentFiles/AdultandAdolescentGL.pdf. Updated July 14, 2016. Accessed April 19, 2017.
  7. HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric HIV infection. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/pediatricguidelines.pdf Updated April 27, 2017. Accessed February 20, 2018.
  8. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, et al, "Updated US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis," Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2013, 34(9): 875-92. [PubMed 23917901]
  9. Lucas GM, Ross MJ, Stock PG, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic kidney disease in patients infected with HIV: 2014 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(9): e96-e138. [PubMed 25234519]
  10. Microbicide Trials Network (MTN), “MTN Statement on Decision to Discontinue Use of Oral Tenofovir Tablets in VOICE, a Major HIV Prevention Study in Women,” Microbicide Trials Network, 2011. Available at http://www.mtnstopshiv.org/node/3619.
  11. Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Paxton LA, et al, “Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis for Heterosexual HIV Transmission in Botswana,” N Engl J Med, 2012, 367(5):423-34. [PubMed 22784038]
  12. Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) [prescribing information]. Foster City, CA: Gilead Sciences; April 2017.
  13. Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir) [product monograph]. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Gilead Sciences Canada Inc; May 2017.
  14. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States—2014 clinical practice guideline. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/guidelines/PrEPguidelines2014.pdf. Published May 2014. Accessed August 14, 2014.
  15. US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Treatment of Pregnant Women With HIV Infection and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women with HIV infection and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/3/perinatal/0. Updated November 14, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.
  16. Van Damme L, Corneli A, Ahmed K, et al, “Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection Among African Women,” N Engl J Med, 2012, 367(5):411-22. [PubMed 22784040]
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